Perfiles Migratorios

Moviendo el cursor sobre el mapa, será posible seleccionar el país de interés.

World Map

Las respuestas de la Iglesia a los retos que plantea el fenómeno migratorio, se elaboran tomando como referencia las situaciones concretas que se generan a partir de los diferentes flujos.

La Sección Migrantes y Refugiados ha pedido a algunos expertos que elaboren perfiles migratorios para cada país del mundo, a fin de ofrecer un instrumento de consulta, científico y simplificado, a las Iglesias locales y a los demás actores católicos comprometidos en la pastoral de la movilidad humana. Para cada país se facilitan datos e información sobre las migraciones internacionales e internas, el marco jurídico nacional y los principales actores involucrados en este sector.

Puesto que se trata de un trabajo complejo y costoso, no todos los datos están disponibles. Recomendamos visitar esta página con frecuencia para comprobar si hay actualizaciones.


Mauritius is an archipelagic country located in the Indian Ocean. It is both a country of origin and destination for international migration. Most of the immigrants are Indian, Bangladeshi, Chinese, Malagasy, and French. The country also hosts refugees and asylum seekers; in 2022, their main countries of origin were South Africa and Pakistan. 


Comoros is an African archipelago located in the Indian Ocean, occupying the northern part of the Mozambique Channel, between Madagascar and the southeastern region of Africa. Most immigrants in Comoros are from the Sub-Saharan African region. In 2020, their main countries of origin were Madagascar, Reunion Island, France, and the United Republic of Tanzania. 


Australia is an island country and does not have any land borders with other countries. Instead, it shares maritime borders with Timor Leste, Indonesia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and the islands of New Caledonia. Australia is one of the most multicultural countries in the world and an important destination for migration flows, hosting people from almost 200 different countries. In 2020, immigrants were mainly UK citizens, Chinese, New Zealanders, Indians, and Filipinos.


The Republic of Seychelles is an archipelagic country located in the Indian Ocean. It is mainly an emigrant country. In 2020, emigrants represented 37.4% of its total population. Their main destination countries were Mozambique, the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa, and Canada. Climate change and brain drain have been a serious concern to the country, the former being mainly due to rising sea levels.


The Republic of Botswana is at the centre of Southern Africa. Most of its territory is in the Kalahari Desert, the most meridional in Africa. When Botswana gained its independence in 1966, it was one of the world's poorest countries, but significant mineral extraction, a small population and prudent economic management have yielded considerable development and economic growth in the nation.


Belize is a Central American country that borders Mexico, Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea. It is an emigrant-sending country and, simultaneously, one of Central America's three main immigrant-receiving countries. Thus, the country has a rich ethnic and cultural diversity and there is an essential contribution from the diaspora to the development of both families and the national well-being. 

San Tome y Principe

São Tomé and Príncipe is an African country that includes several islands located in the Gulf of Guinea. The country gained its independence from Portugal in 1975, and since then, it has experienced different migration flows. Immigration comes mainly from Cape Verde, Angola, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, and Portugal.


The Maldive Islands is an archipelago located in the Indian Ocean (bordering Sri Lanka to the southwest) which comprises 1,192 islands, of which only 203 are inhabited. Most immigrants come from Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka. A small percentage of them are from China, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Nepal; however their number has been steadily increasing.


The Republic of Paraguay is a landlocked country in South America, with a very low population density compared to most Latin American countries. Paraguay is mainly an emigrant country and is among the South American countries with the highest stocks of people living abroad. In 2021, the top destination countries for Paraguayans were Argentina, Brazil, the USA, Spain, and Mexico.

Cabo Verde

The Republic of Cape Verde is an archipelago and island country of West Africa located in the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Verde has always been considered an emigrant country, and in 2020 the main destinations were Portugal, the USA, France, the Netherlands, and Angola. Immigration is also present, mainly from Guinea Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, and Portugal, due to the historical, cultural and economic ties with these countries.


The Republic of Gabon is located on the Atlantic coast of Central Africa. Gabon has always been considered an immigrant country due to its strategic place and economic stability. In 2020, the main countries of origin for immigrants were Equatorial Guinea, Mali, Benin, Cameroon, and Senegal.


The Republic of Chile is located in South America and is bordered to the north by Peru, to the east by Bolivia and Argentina, and to the West by the Pacific Ocean. Over the last 25 years Chile has experienced economic growth and stability and a significant poverty reduction compared to the Latin American average. This has made it an attractive destination for immigration in South America.


Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa, including Zanzibar, Pemba, Mafia and Africa's highest peak, Kilimanjaro. It is currently one of the countries that receives the most immigrants in Africa, mainly from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Kenya, and Mozambique. Furthermore, part of Tanzania's population emigrates primarily to the United States, the United Kingdom, Rwanda, Kenya, and Burundi.


Namibia is considered the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa, occupying part of the Kalahari Desert. The culture comes from the traditions of native people and various immigrants who gradually arrived in the country. Over the years, Namibia has also become a country of refuge for thousands of people fleeing their homes due to wars, poverty, and violence. People seeking refuge in Namibia mainly come from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe.

República Dominicana

The Dominican Republic (DR) is a Caribbean country that shares with Haiti the island of Hispaniola. For a long time the DR has been a destination country for refugees coming from Haiti, and since 2014 many Venezuelans have also begun seeking refuge in the country. Currently, the DR has 135,000 stateless Dominicans of Haitian descent, many of whom are vulnerable to human trafficking.

Países nórdicos

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Iceland. These countries, currently among the wealthiest countries in the world, are united by strong economic and cultural ties, a shared history, values, and social models. Together, these five countries have a population of 27,657,945 and cover an area of 1,319,999 km2. However, each of these countries has its own distinct identity.

Guinea Ecuatorial

Equatorial Guinea is located in Central Africa and its migratory flows have undergone significant changes over time. Initially, the country experienced large-scale internal migrations marked by an accelerated process of rural exodus and the growth of the country’s main cities. The economic prosperity also attracted foreign labour. In fact, since 2015 immigration has increased, and in 2020 migrants represented 16.79% of the population.


The Republic of Serbia is one of the six countries resulting from the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia. It has recently become an important transit country for people heading to Europe via the Western Balkan route and receives refugees mainly from Turkey, Libya, Syria, Afghanistan, and Iran. Likewise, Serbia has one of the highest numbers of Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Europe, with 211,740 registered in 2022.


The Republic of Slovakia is located in Central Europe, bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the southwest, and the Czech Republic to the northwest. In 2021, the country experienced a sharp increase in asylum seekers due to the thousands of Ukrainians fleeing conflict. Besides Ukrainians, the main nationalities among refugees are Afghans and Iraqis.

Los países bajos

Historically, the Netherlands has been a destination country of migration, and its immigration patterns have been the result of the Dutch colonial heritage and different waves of labour recruitment programs. In 2021 there were nearly 2.5 million immigrants in the Netherlands. The top five countries of origin were Poland, the Former Soviet Union, Syria, Romania, Germany, and Turkey.


The Republic of Lithuania is located in the centre of the European continent, bordered to the north by Latvia, to the east by Belarus, to the southwest by Poland and by the Russian enclave of Kyrgyzstan, while to the west its coastline is along the Baltic Sea. Since its independence, Lithuania has been a country with a low birth rate and emigration to Western Europe. However, since 2019 the migration balance has been positive, thanks to an increase in the demand of high value-added sectors in Lithuania. 

Pakistán (emergencia)

In late August 2022, unprecedented torrential rains and flash flooding worsened an already fragile situation in Pakistan, one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. Over 33 million people have been affected by these devastating monsoon floods, leaving 7.9 million people displaced, of whom nearly 600,000 are now living in relief sites.


Due to its geographical location, relations with neighbouring countries and complex history, Pakistan is a country of origin and transit for migration. The most significant concern for the country is climate change, which is causing monsoon floods that force millions of IDPs to leave their homes, destroy farms and increase food shortages, leaving the state in a very vulnerable condition.


Ecuador has traditionally been an emigrant country. However, after 2001 it has also experienced an increase in immigration, mostly arriving from Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, due to its dollar currency and labour opportunities in the country. Ecuador also hosts one of the biggest Latin American refugee communities (comprised of 72,229 recognised refugees), and most of them come from Venezuela.

Cuba (emergencia)

In the last 11 months around 180.000 Cubans entered the United States irregularly through the Mexican border. Another 8.000 tried to do so via sea. Moreover, from October 2021, 5.421 persons were intercepted at sea trying to reach the Florida straight in fragile boats (balsas). 3.000 persons succeeded in reaching the coast. This number is higher than the total of balseros detained in the last five years


Guinea-Bissau is a small country in the West coast of Africa. Its fragile infrastructure and high unemployment rate make it an emigrant country that is highly dependent on foreign remittances. Even though its political and economic context has fostered emigration from Guinea-Bissau to other countries, the State also hosts immigrants and refugees from bordering countries, mainly from Senegal and other nations in West Africa.

Melilla (emergencia)

On June 24, 2022, between 1,300 and 2,000 men, mostly Sudanese and South Sudanese, attempted to climb the 6- to 10-metre chain-link fences surrounding Melilla and separating the Moroccan and Spanish territories. The sudden influx caused a fatal stampede in which at least 23 people reportedly died and dozens were injured, while 133 managed to enter Spain and were received in the extremely overcrowded temporary migrant holding centre.


The Gambia is mainly an emigrant and a transit country, due to its peculiar geographic location, surrounded by Senegal, and to its low economic and educational structures. The state stands as the second largest diaspora per capita in Europe and the ninth global economy more dependent on immigrant remittances. Furthermore, it is an important entry point for irregular migrants arriving from Sub-Saharan Africa and going to Europe.


Benin is a small state located in West Africa and bordered by Togo, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Niger, with 121 kilometres of coastline along the Gulf of Guinea. It is a host country for many migrant workers from neighbouring countries and West Africa due to its political and social stability and economic potential. Nevertheless, Benin is mainly an emigrant country.


The Republic of Cuba is located in the Antilles, in the Caribbean Sea. Compared to its total population, the country has the lowest migrant stock in the Caribbean area, being instead a mostly emigrant and transit country.


Haiti is a Caribbean country that along with the Dominican Republic shares the Hispaniola island. Two-fifths of the Haitian population depends on agriculture, mainly small-scale subsistence farming often disrupted by climate change issues. In fact, according to the 2021 Global Climate Risk Index, Haiti ranked third behind the island of Puerto Rico and Myanmar as a country vulnerable to natural disasters.

Macedonia del norte

The Republic of North Macedonia is located in Southeast Europe and is the main migrant corridor between Greece and Serbia. North Macedonia has many emigrants, and most of them moved to Turkey, Germany, and Italy. However, the country also hosts many immigrants coming from Albania, Turkey and Serbia, and refugees mostly arriving from Serbia and Kosovo. 


Peru is located in the western part of the South American continent. The country has been  characterised by its high emigration flows, composed especially of young Peruvians who migrate to other countries in search of better living conditions. However, in recent years the country has experienced an increase in its immigrant population, mostly due to the high acceptance of refugees and asylum seekers from Venezuela.


Brazil is the largest country in South and Central America, and is recognized as an example for its great effort to receive and integrate refugees and migrants. Brazil has become the home to many migrants coming from neighbouring countries, and other African and Asian countries, looking for job opportunities and better living conditions.

Frontera Bielorrusia-Polonia (emergencia)

People on the move fleeing conflicts in the Middle East continue to be trapped in a forested border region between Belarus and Poland and are in need of humanitarian and medical assistance. At least 24 people lost their lives in attempts to cross the border from Belarus to the EU in 2021 and early 2022.


India is the second most populous country in the world and the country from which the highest number of migrants has originated. Although they account for less than 0.4% of India's population, the country's resident foreigners number almost 5 million, mainly from the larger neighbouring countries.


Although it is one of the smallest European countries, Slovenia is experiencing different migration flows, especially internal ones from the peripheral regions to the more industrialised ones, and substantial arrivals, mainly from the Balkan countries.


The Kingdom of Bhutan, located between China and India, is one of the most geographically isolated countries in the world. At mid-year 2020, the international migrant stock in Bhutan counted 53,612 people, representing around 6,9% of the entire population and, according to UN data, 8,088 of them were female.

Congo Brazzaville

The Republic of the Congo is commonly referred to as Congo Brazzaville,  to distinguish it from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is one of the most urbanised countries in the world, with a growth rate of 3.3% per year. Its two largest cities, Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire, host more than half of the country’s population.

Yemen (emergencia)

Since violence broke out in late March 2015, conditions in Yemen - already one of the poorest countries in the Middle East – have continued to deteriorate, with an estimated 80 percent of the population—nearly 24 million people—needing humanitarian assistance. 


Togo is one of the smallest countries in Africa, with a population of more than 8 million people and an annual population growth rate of 2.5%. It is a destination and origin country for refugees, as well as a transit place for human trafficking within the West African Coast.


The Republic of Madagascar gained its independence in 1960. It is located on an island in the Indian Ocean, 400 km away from Mozambique, and has a total surface area of 587,041 sq. km.  Due to Madagascar’s isolation, 90% of its flora and fauna are indigenous and are not found anywhere else in the world.


Liberia is a Western Africa country bordered by Sierra Leone to the northwest, Guinea to the north, Cote d’Ivoire to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and the west. Internal conflict in the country led to an eight-year long civil war that resulted also in some 175,000 people becoming either internally displaced or refugees.


Mongolia is situated in northern Asia, landlocked between China and Russia. The country’s territory extends for about 1.5 million sq. m. and has a population of over 3 million people, making it one of the least densely populated countries in the world (2 inh./sq. km).


Mexico has an area of 1,972,550 sq. km.and it is bordered by the United States to the north, the Gulf of Mexico to the east, Belize and Guatemala to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Mexico is both the world’s leading provider of migrants to the United States and the main transit territory for Central Americans and other migrants trying to reach that country.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a tropical climate country, with a rather warm temperature during the whole year, except for a couple of months when it is affected by monsoons. Monsoons bring heavy rains and strong winds that can often result in floods, causing Internal Displaced People (IDPs) and casualties.


Egypt is the most densely populated area in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Due to its centrality within MENA, Egypt is a country of origin, destination, and transit for migrants, and has been hosting refugees coming mostly from Syria and South Sudan. 

Sudán (emergencia)

Sudan hosts 1.12 million refugees, one of the largest refugee populations in Africa. Recently, it saw new displacements from Ethiopia, South Sudan and within Sudan. South Sudanese refugees represent more than 70% (800,000) of the refugees in Sudan, followed by 126,000 Eritrean refugees (11%).

Venezuela (emergencia)

With over 5.9 million Venezuelans living abroad, the vast majority in countries within Latin America and the Caribbean, this has become one of the largest displacement crisis in the world. 

Ucrania (emergencia)

After the crisis in Crimea and the civil war in the Donbass region, the number of displaced people from Ukraine had risen to about 3 million, mostly of whom were internally displaced. With the escalation of the conflict starting on 24th February 2022, this already volatile situation has turned into a full-scale emergency.


Nepal is primarily a country of origin for migrants. The number of foreigners residing in the country is less than 500,000 while Nepalese residing abroad are five times as many, and most of them emigrated to India, Malaysia and the Middle East.

Sierra Leona

Sierra Leone is a western African country bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Guinea to the north and east, and Liberia to the south. In addition to being a country of origin, destination, and transit for migrants, Sierra Leone has experienced the return of more than 3,000 Sierra Leoneans who fled the country during the civil war. 


Djibouti is in a strategic location on the Red Sea, at the gateway between the Suez Canal and the Arabian Sea, making the country a crossroads of cultures and peoples arriving from Africa, Asia, and especially Arabia. 


Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Zambia, Mozambique, South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana. The country, once named Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia, gained its independence from the UK in 1980 and was then called Zimbabwe.


Singapore, being a sovereign island city-state, is particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels and floods. Singapore holds the world's third highest population density and has an extremely multicultural variety of people, with four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil). 


Nicaragua is a Central American country with many emigrants mostly located in the United States and Costa Rica, and in a lower scale also in other countries. Since the mid-2010s, its territory has been used as a transit area for extra-regional migrants and other mixed flows. 


Belarus is an Eastern European nation that used to be part of the Soviet Union. Minsk is the capital and largest city, and it is also the administrative headquarters of the Commonwealth of the Independent States (CIS). In 2020, migrants were 11.3% of the total population, accounting for 1,067,090 people in Belarus.


Honduras, which is one of the poorest countries in the Central American region, has been facing a complex migratory situation and an intensification of internal displacement for more than a decade. It is a country of origin for migrants in vulnerable conditions, and a transit territory for extra-regional migrants. 

El Salvador

El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America, with a territory of 21,070 sq. km, and shares its borders with Guatemala and Honduras. Because of its small territory, its large number and concentration of people, especially young ones, El Salvador is a country with one of the highest emigration rates in the western hemisphere.


Guatemala is the main point of arrival and departure for Central American migration to North America. Its wide border with Mexico marks the division between the routes followed by migrants coming from the countries of North Central America, which include El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, and those arriving from south and southeast Mexico trying to get to the United States.


Azerbaijan is the most populated and rich republic in the South Caucasus. Its capital, Baku, is the largest city in the country and the biggest port in the entire Caucasus. It is also the world's lowest national capital, standing at 28 metres below sea level.


In addition to being a country of origin, destination, and transit for migrants, Angola has also experienced the return of more than 400,000 Angolans, who had previously left the country during the civil war. Angola has been hosting refugees, especially from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.


Bangladesh represents a real challenge for both local authorities and international institutions, since the country is extremely vulnerable to climate change and often the object of natural disasters. At the same time, Bangladesh is a destination country for hundreds of thousands of refugees coming from the neighbouring Myanmar, and has a very high urban population density.

Estados Unidos de América

In 2020, the United States of America (USA) accounted for 15.9% of the global gross domestic product (GDP). The USA is the world’s top economy, as well as a cultural superpower due to centuries of immigration flows, and that makes it particularly attractive to migrants.


A landlocked and neutral European mountainous country with a 8,453,550 strong population and a thriving economy, Switzerland is a federal country, home to many international organisations, international non governmental agencies and companies, and has the second GDP per capita in the world, making it particularly attractive to people from all walks of life.


Malawi is a landlocked country located in Southeastern Africa, along the eastern part of the Great Rift Valley of Africa. The country is divided into three areas: the densely populated southern part, the central one which consists of fertile plains and is well-populated, and the northern region which is sparsely populated.


Lesotho is located in Southern Africa and is surrounded by South Africa. It is considered a transit, destination, and source country for migrants. Most Basotho migrants move to South Africa, due to its proximity to their country. 


Mozambique is a South-eastern African country, surrounded by the Mozambique Channel and located between South Africa and Tanzania. Mozambique has always had a very large migration abroad; however, internal and rural movements into urban areas have started to rise.


Ireland is Europe’s second largest island after Great Britain. Compared to the other European countries, it is not heavily populated (approximately five million people, with less than 65 inhabitants per km2), also due to its mountainous land. 

Costa Rica

Costa Rica has historically been the main migrant-receiving country in Central America, especially from neighbouring Nicaragua; but migrants have also arrived from other countries of the subregion and Latin America. Its geographic location and its political and social stability make it a desirable place for migrants.

Guinea Conakri

Guinea is a West African nation endowed with many natural resources (especially mining and hydropower), and yet a cross-section of the population still lives in dire poverty. Despite its effort to overcome poverty, this issue is still a major concern in the country, like unemployment whose rate was 4.35% in 2020, while among young people in 2019 was at 5.04%

La Ruta Centroamérica (emergencia)

The Central America Route is characterised by people moving from the northern Central America countries of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras to the United States, as well as from Nicaragua both northward to the United States as well as to Costa Rica.


Colombia is a country located in South America, and as of 2020 it had a population of 50,882,884 inhabitants, with 81.42% of them living in urban areas, while the remaining 18,57% are located in rural areas. One of its greatest challenges is migration due to several issues involved in this phenomenon. 


Mauritania is  a desert country, with vast areas for grazing and only 0.5% of the land is good for cultivation. It is the fourth least densely populated country in Africa, with a density of 3.9 inhabitants per square kilometre. Mauritania is a destination and transit country in the sub-Saharan region and has been hosting refugees, mainly coming from Mali.


Rwanda is a small landlocked country in Central Africa surrounded by Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the DRC. In the country there is just over half million immigrants, mostly coming from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, and Uganda, while refugees are mainly arriving from the DRC and Burundi.

República Centroafricana

The Central African Republic (CAR) is a landlocked country, surrounded by Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, and Cameroon. More than one in five people is displaced, and more than half of the population is in pressing need of assistance.

Reino Unido

The United Kingdom (UK) is a constitutional monarchy including four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. England has the largest territory, and in 2018 14% of its resident population was born abroad.


Though located in a region that is affected by conflict and violence, Senegal remains one of the most stable countries in Africa, having gone through three peaceful political transitions since obtaining its independence from France.


Burundi is densely populated, even though it is the least urbanized country in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a 13.7% urban population. Despite its stretched resources, Burundi is a host to about 80,000 refugees mostly from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

La Ruta del Mediterráneo Oriental (emergencia)

Since 2014, the Eastern Mediterranean migration route has served as an important pathway for refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants crossing to Europe from the Middle East, Asia, and Africa.


Historically, Venezuela has always been considered the most prosperous South American country, due to an outstanding oil production; but in 2008 a major inflation crisis hit the national economy, causing an on-going political and financial instability. As a consequence, from February 2017 to October 2021 Venezuelan refugees have increased exponentially.


Chad is situated at the confluence of concurrent and overlapping conflicts in the Sahel, the Lake Chad Basin, Western Darfur, and the Central African Republic. Despite its dire economic situation, Chad remains one of the countries in the region that receives thousands of migrants because of its central position. 


Stretching into the Mediterranean sea, as a bridge between Europe and Africa, Italy has always been a land of migration, due to its peculiar geographical position. In the last decades, it experienced strong immigration and emigration flows, resulting in more than 6 million foreigners living in the country and about 5.5 million Italians living abroad.


Canada, the world’s second largest country in total area, has a long history of migration and has been characterized as a land of immigration. In the last twenty years, Canada has experienced a significant increase in migratory flows and, in 2018, became the country with the highest number of resettled refugees.


Cameroon is commonly referred to as “Africa in miniature” due to its cultural diversity and abundant natural resources (wood, cotton, refined petroleum oils, unwrought aluminium, etc.). Cameroon also has an extremely heterogeneous population, with a total of approximately 240 tribes.

Mozambique (emergencia)

The combined effects of natural disasters, conflicts and the COVID-19 pandemic left many people in Mozambique in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. Although violence is now leading less to displacement, the situation remains volatile and needs for humanitarian food assistance remain high, with an estimated 1.3 million people currently in need.

Haití (emergencia)

Since mid-2018, economic and political crisis has worsened in Haiti, and violence and insecurity have become widespread after the Haiti president's assassination on July 7, 2021. This already precarious situation has been further worsened by an upsurge in clashes in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area (ZMPP) that contributed to large-scale urban displacement and daily killings and kidnappings.


South Africa is Africa’s southernmost country. In 2020, it was the top destination country for immigrants in Southern Africa, with a migrant population of 2,137,519 (28%). Migration routes in and out of South Africa are some of the most widely travelled on the continent.

Costa de Marfil

Since its independence in 1960, Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) has been hailed as the top migration destination country in West Africa - especially among labour migrants and refugees. With the tensions in the country from 2002 until 2020, immigration has declined. However, Ivory Coast remains among the top ten migration corridors in Western Africa, and is host to the highest number of migrants (2,564,857) in the region.


Uganda is a landlocked country bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Tanzania. The country’s population in 2020 was 45.7 million. Migration to Uganda has been driven by political factors, poverty, rapid population growth, and the porosity of international borders.


Eritrea is an east African country with a population that is growing annually and may reach 6.7 million by 2030.Migrants constitute 12% of the total population (607,900 people), while refugees represent 9.6% (486,200). The long-lasting tension between Eritrea and Ethiopia has led to the militarisation of the nation.


For several decades Afghanistan has been considered the world’s highest refugee-producing country due to an unstable political and social climate. This current situation may have worsened because of the fall of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the full withdrawal of international troops from the country and the reinstatement of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

Corea del Sur

As its population is rapidly aging, South Korea attracts thousands of foreign, low-skilled workers, especially from the Great Mekong area. As of the middle of 2020, 1.7 million foreigners were living in the Republic of Korea.


Cambodia lies in the middle of the Great Mekong sub-region, in Indochina. Though urbanization is on the rise, migrants – both internal and international – face many burdens and adversities. They are increasingly vulnerable to trafficking, abuse, and exploitation. The families they leave behind also suffer significant hardships. Internal migration is prevalent, especially from the countryside to the urban areas, and so is emigration.


Located in Central Europe and bordering the Baltic Sea, Poland has a population of 38,000,000 and one of the largest diasporas in the world. Polish nationals and the descendants of former Polish migrants amount to around 20 million people worldwide, mostly located in Western countries.


Due to its impressive growth in wealth, the associated drop in birth rates, and its highly skilled population, many of whom study and work abroad, Taiwan experienced an urgent need for blue-collar workers. It therefore invited thousands of migrant workers from both mainland China and Southeast Asian countries. As of May 2021, more than 820,000 foreigners were living in the country, representing about 3.5% of its entire population of 23,000,000. Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Thailand are the main countries of origin of immigrants in Taiwan, the majority of whom are female.


A post-industrial society, Japan is an insular country with one of the highest Human Development Index ratings in the world. Though a popular high end tourism destination, Japan is also a rather homogeneous society with very strict immigration policies. Japan has the lowest asylum intake ratio in the developed world.
As the country is particularly prone to natural and consequent industrial disasters, large internal displacements can occur, as in the wake of the 2011 earthquake. While the effects of these events are temporary for most people, these disasters leave the most destitute in a highly vulnerable position, particularly asylum seekers as well as Japanese nationals who live in poverty. Human trafficking also takes place in Japan, likewise targeting the most vulnerable.


Vietnam’s geography, geopolitics, and history play a major role in influencing migration flows. There are many irregular migrants arriving from China, Japan, South Korea, and other neighbouring countries like Cambodia and Laos. The government has recognised the impact of foreign workers on behalf of the Vietnamese economy and society.


Located in the south-eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula, the Sultanate of Oman has a population of approximately four and a half million people. Amongst its inhabitants is a rapidly decreasing proportion of foreign workers, presently around 30% of the population, who are being displaced by the nationalisation of the workforce.


France is a semi-presidential republic. It is one of the founding members of the European Union. Since the 19th century, the country has been a prominent destination for immigrants, mainly coming from Northern Africa and Southern Europe. As of 2021, the foreign population living in France amounted to 5.2 million. Algeria, Morocco, Portugal, Tunisia, Italy, Turkey, and Spain were their most common countries of origin.

Emiratos Rabes Unidos

Second-highest migrant destination country in the Middle East and the Gulf, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven Emirates and is one of the most globally integrated countries in the Arab Peninsula.


Armenia is a landlocked country in the Caucasus region, known for its large diaspora all around the world. Armenia became independent in the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, three years after the dramatic earthquake of 1988.

Afganistán (emergencia)

Suffering prolonged conflict and insecurity as well as disasters such as droughts, floods and storms, Afghanistan faces one of the world’s most severe and rapidly growing internal displacement crises. Enormous need remains for humanitarian assistance among more than half of the Afghan population. 

Sudán del Sur

The Republic of South Sudan is the youngest nation in the world; it gained independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011 following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 and the referendum and independence process in 2011. Its history is, therefore, connected to that of Sudan.


The Republic of the Sudan is a country of origin, transit, and destination, geographically positioned along the main migratory routes from West and East Africa to Europe. Sudan is a place of origin for migration due to on-going conflicts and related insecurities, as well as a stagnated economic situation marked by widespread unemployment.


In the 1990s, Algeria experienced substantial emigration due to civil war. Many Algerians entered Tunisia irregularly and others sought asylum in Europe. After the civil war, sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations and consequently increased their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers (principally from China and Egypt) came to work in Algeria's construction and oil sectors.


Kazakhstan is a large Central Asian country situated between Asia and Europe. It is a former Soviet state and a current member of the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Following its independence in 1991, it made great strides towards economic recovery.

Arabia Saudí

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest Arab country, located in the Middle East. As of 2020, there were 13,454,842 foreigners living in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and their main countries of origin were India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Syria, and Yemen. The country is the arrival point of one of the most crowded maritime migration routes in the world, the so-called Eastern Migration Route, which involves significant risks.


Libya has experienced a period of intense and protracted crisis since 2011. Before this explosion of violence, the country was a major destination for labour migrants and typically hosted from 1.35 to 2.5 million migrant workers. Most migrant labourers worked in the construction and health sectors, with some in agricultural and manufacturing sectors.


Somalia is a country of transit, destination, origin, and return for massive flows of internal and outward migration across the Horn of Africa and beyond. A civil war between 1987 and 1991 promoted the mass internal displacement of approximately 100,000 refugees, and of more than 500,000 towards Ethiopia.

República Democrática del Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa and is located in central Africa. Until the 1980s, the DRC was the main destination for economic migrants, mostly coming from the Central African Republic, Rwanda, Angola, South Sudan, and Burundi.  However, armed conflicts and the economic downturn also turned the DRC into an emigrant country.


Zambia experiences substantial internal migration and emigration exceeds immigration. The international migrant stock for Zambia is 170,200. Zambia hosts a relatively small number of asylum seekers and refugees compared to other similarly situated African countries.


Kyrgyzstan has a young population, with over 50% being under the age of 30. In addition to Kyrgyz, who make up roughly 75% of the population, the country is populated by various ethnic groups including Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, Tatars, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Koreans, Uighurs, and Germans who were exiled from the Soviet Union in 1941.


Kenya is a migration source, destination, and transit country for neighbouring countries, as well as for South Africa, the Middle East, North Africa, North America, and Europe. Additionally, Kenya is home to one of the largest refugee populations and has some of the oldest refugee camps in Africa.


Tunisia has always been a country of emigration. In the years following the end of the French Protectorate in 1956, Tunisians mostly emigrated to Western Europe owing to labour shortages in the region, especially in France.


Ethiopia is the oldest independent country on the African continent. Except for a brief period under Mussolini’s Italy, the country has always maintained its independence. Ethiopia is a landlocked country largely dependent on its neighbour Djibouti for port access. It is a majority Christian country and is home to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.


Niger is positioned at the crossroads of the migratory routes of West and Central Africa.

Thus, Niger has become one of the main transit countries for migrants originating from West and Central Africa, moving to North Africa, and migrating irregularly across the Mediterranean.


The Republic of the Philippines, an archipelago in Southeast Asia, is the world's fifth-largest island nation and one of the most populated countries in the world: 109,180,815 (2020).


Despite the workforce nationalization policy established in recent years in Bahrain, its economy is still mainly relying on foreign workforce.


Morocco has been a country of emigration since the 1960s, with a reported 2.8 million Moroccans having moved abroad (2014). Initially, it was mostly low-skilled workers who migrated to France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, but then a shift occurred as high skilled workers began moving to the United States and Canada.


Migration has always been a significant part of Nigerian history. Nowadays, Nigeria has been suffering the consequences of conflicts, violence and climate change, which explains the 3,098,4040 internally displaced persons recorded in 2022. This year also, 400,633 Nigerians crossed the border and were recognised as refugees. Their main destinations were Niger, Cameroon, and Chad.


Mali is a landlocked country in western Africa where nearly half of the highly dispersed population lives in extreme poverty. Mali, which is mainly a country of emigration and transit migration, suffers from a number of environmental challenges, including desertification, drought, deforestation, soil erosion, inadequate supplies of drinking water, and flooding of the Niger River during the rainy season.


Following the independence of Ghana in 1957, the number of people migrating to Ghana far surpassed the number who left. However, by the 1980s, Ghana had become a country of emigration, which it still is today.


The Federal Republic of Germany is located at the centre of Europe. Traditionally, Germany has been an excellent place to migrate to, due to its quality of life and job opportunities. Turkey, Poland, Romania, Syria, and Italy are the immigrants’ leading countries of origin; but since February 2022, because of the ongoing conflict, there has been a substantial increase of Ukrainian immigrants. 


The State of Qatar is ruled by a hereditary absolute monarchy. Qatar has signed several memoranda of understanding and agreements with workforce-sending countries, in particular with South and Southeast Asian nations to facilitate the recruitment of migrants.


Situated at the junction of the Middle East and Asia, Iran, also known as Persia, is an ancient civilisation, amongst the oldest sovereign States in the world. A predominantly Persian yet multi-ethnic society, the political nature of the State in Iran is Shiite and theocratic.

Myanmar (emergencia)

As of 14 March 2022, there were an estimated 889,900 IDPs across Myanmar, including 519,500 people newly displaced since the military takeover on 1st February 2021 and 370,400 IDPs in protracted displacement from previous crises. Civilians continue to bear the brunt of the conflict, which has further escalated in northwest and southeast Myanmar. 

Ruta del Atlántico (emergencia)

Since 2020, around 40,000 people have departed from the Northwest African coast across the Atlantic Ocean to reach Spain’s Canary Islands. Facing protracted displacement, dire conditions in neighbouring host countries where they sought shelter, the continued economic impact of the COVID pandemic and a lack of viable alternatives, many continue to attempt risky sea journeys to Europe through the Canary islands.

Ruta del Mediterráneo Central (emergencia)

Refugees and migrants suffer brutality and abuses along the routes towards the Mediterranean. Many fall prey to traffickers and smugglers and are extorted, raped, and sometimes killed or left to die. Many of them flee violence and persecution and have dire and urgent protection needs.

Camerún (emergencia)

In a context of increasing complaints from English-speaking communities in a majority French-speaking country, violence in the northwest and southwest regions of Cameroon has intensified sharply since 2016. The anglophone crisis counted almost 600,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), 417.500 returnees in Cameroon, and over 82.000 Cameroonian refugees registered in Nigeria.

Nigeria (Boko Haram), emergencia

The crisis in northeastern Nigeria has been an ongoing internal armed conflict since the Islamic terrorist group Boko Haram began operating in the region since 2014. As a result, the region has experienced massive displacement, with some 2,730,000 IDPs from conflict and 143,110 from natural disasters.

República Checa

Until the end of the past millennium, Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, was pre-eminently an emigration country due to communist oppression, especially following the 1968 invasion by the armies of the Warsaw Pact.


Despite its strong workforce, nationalization policies, and the increasing struggle against integration of migrants in Kuwait (which has been underway in recent years), the country’s economy continues to rely heavily on its foreign workforce.

La ruta de los Balcanes (emergencia)

The Western Balkan Route is one of the main migratory pathways into Europe. Migrants and refugees stuck along the Balkan Route are in desperate need of adequate shelter, warm clothes, nutritious food and medical assistance.

Tigray, Ethiopia (emergencia)

Since violence began in early November 2020, an estimated 4.1 million people have been displaced and over 1.5 million IDPs have returned home, largely as a result of the ongoing conflict in northern Ethiopia and localised conflicts and tensions in different parts of the country.


The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the heart of Central Asia and is bordered by Kyrgyzstan to the north, by China to the east, by Afghanistan to the south and by Uzbekistan to the west and north-west. Its land area covers 143,100 km2 and is divided into four provinces, one of which is autonomous.


In the mid-1970s, Portugal began receiving high inflows of migrants from the Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa, notably Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe and Mozambique.

Burkina Faso

Migration in Burkina Faso has long been a traditional way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by years spent abroad.


The Kingdom of Spain, located at the crossroad of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, Europe and Africa, is a key political, cultural, and migratory bridge across five continents. Thus, it is one of the main countries affected by migration movements. Spain is a destination and transit country for international migrations. As of 2022, there were 5,417,883 migrants living in the country, accounting for 11.42% of the total population.

Tierra Santa

The Holy Land is the location of a more than seven-decade-long situation which has witnessed numerous armed confrontations and political, economic and social pressures that lead to land occupation, exodus, human rights violations and continued instability throughout the region.


During 2021 Panama experienced an increase of migrants in transit, especially Haitians, Venezuelans, and Cubans, who crossed Central America in order to reach the United States. This country has never been a place of immigration and, together with Costa Rica, is one of the Central American countries with the fewest number of immigrants in the world. 


Uzbekistan is a country in Central Asia, a former member of the Soviet Union from which it gained independence in 1991. The country is landlocked, bordering Kazakhstan to the North and West, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the East, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the South.


Turkmenistan is a presidential republic located in Central Asia with a population of 5,942,089 inhabitants (2019). The country is divided into five provinces (Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap, Mary) and an autonomous city district (the capital Ashgabat).


Situated in the most southern part of the Balkan peninsula, the Hellenic Republic is a key actor in migration and asylum. Due to its geographical location, Greece is the gateway to Europe for people arriving from the Middle East, and has become a transit and destination country for many refugees and asylum seekers.


Malta is situated in the Mediterranean Sea, between the coasts of Tunisia and Sicily. It is located 180 miles north of Libya and is strategically located at the world's busiest shipping lanes. Its location has made it an important transit and destination country for migration. Nevertheless, until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, it was essentially a source of emigration. 


The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a small country at the crossroads of the Holy Land which Pope Francis complimented in 2014 for its “generous welcome” of refugees fleeing crises in the Middle East.


Croatia is a parliamentary republic, member of the European Union since 2013. Geographically, it borders Slovenia to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to the south, and the Adriatic Sea to the west. Regarding immigration, in 2021 the main countries of origin were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Germany, and Slovenia. 


The Russian Federation is a transcontinental state that stretches from Europe across Asia. It is the largest state in the world with an area of 17,098,242 km.2 According to 2019 data from ROSSTAT (Federal Statistical Service), Russia had 146,792,744 inhabitants, ranking it ninth in the world for the number of its inhabitants and tenth according to its mortality rate.


Yemen currently has one of the world’s largest humanitarian crises. Its war has forced more than 4.3 million people to leave their homes. In 2021 3,856 refugees fled the country, mainly going to the Netherlands, Germany, and the United Kingdom. In 2019, the United Nations recorded 1,248,711 Yemeni emigrants living in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, the United States, and Qatar.


Ukraine (603,600 sq. km) is a country with a long history and tradition located in Eastern Europe, divided into 24 Provinces and the capital Kyiv, which has special status. It is a middle-income country, with a significant output in agriculture and food products, as well as a strong industrial base.


Syria has been experiencing a state of war involving a multitude of internal and external factors since 2011.


Situated between the Holy Land and Syria, Lebanon is riddled with deeply rooted political instability, and highly impacted by the devastating fiscal, economic, monetary, and sanitary crises.


Iraq has experienced long periods of war throughout its short existence, and especially during the past few decades.


Georgia is mainly an emigrant country. The top destinations are the Russian Federation, Greece, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. Push factors are mostly economic. The Georgian diaspora represents a great potential for the country’s economic development and for strengthening ties with the international community.


The Kingdom of Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country which has never been colonized by a European power. The head of state is King Wachiralongkon while the head of Government is Prime Minister Gen. Prayut Chan-ocha.


Myanmar or Burma is the most multilingual and ethnically and religiously diverse country in South-East Asia. The population of 54,409,800 inhabitants (July 2020, est.) of this lower middle-income least developed country is composed of 135 ethnicities, while its five main religions are: Theravada Buddhism 89.2%, Christianity 5.0%, Islam 3.5%, Hinduism 0.5%, and Spiritualism 1.2%.


The Republic of Indonesia is now the world's fourth most populous democracy, with an estimated 262,787,403 people (July 2018), and the largest Muslim-majority nation. At 87.2%, Islam is the dominant religion while 7% are Protestant and 3.33% are Roman Catholic.


The Republic of Hungary, a parliamentary republic, is a member of the European Union, NATO, OSCE and the Visegrád Group (V4), and has been a member of the Schengen Agreement since 2004. It has an area of 93,030 km2 and has a continental climate.


Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean to the south of the Anatolian peninsula. It is divided de facto into two parts: the Greek Orthodox-majority Republic of Cyprus (59% of the territory), and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (36%), with a Muslim population; there is a buffer zone between the two.

Bosnia y Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, formerly part of Yugoslavia (until 1992), is now a federal parliamentary republic and is part of the Western Balkan route, which remains the most active migration route to Europe. It has historically been a transit and a migrant sending country. The Bosnian diaspora, amounting to 1,804,991 emigrants recorded abroad, mainly resides in Croatia, Serbia, Germany, Austria, Slovenia, and the United States.


Belgium is a federal state, governed by a parliamentary monarchy. It is a member and one of the founding states of the European Union; Brussels, its capital city, hosts the headquarters of several Community institutions.


Albania’s migrant stock represents 0.53% of its total population, with immigrants mostly arriving from Greece, Italy, the United States, and Turkey. Due to its geographic location in the Western Balkan route, the country has also become a very common transit point for migrants going into the European Union


Austria is a federal parliamentary republic located in central Europe and one of the founding countries of the European Union. In 2022, there were 1,587,251 foreigners living in Austria, mainly coming from Eastern and Central European countries: Germany, Romania, Serbia, Turkey, Bosnia, and Croatia.