Perfis de País

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World Map

As respostas da Igreja aos desafios colocados pelo fenómeno das migrações são elaboradas com base nas situações particulares geradas pelos diferentes fluxos.

A Secção Migrantes e Refugiados pediu a alguns peritos que elaborassem perfis migratórios para cada país do mundo, a fim de oferecer um instrumento de consulta científico e objetivo às Igrejas locais e outros atores católicos envolvidos no cuidado pastoral da mobilidade humana. Para cada país, são comunicados dados e informações sobre as migrações internacionais e internas, o quadro jurídico nacional e os principais atores envolvidos no sector.

Como este é um trabalho longo e dispendioso, nem todos os dados estão atualmente disponíveis. Recomendamos que visite esta página frequentemente para verificar se há atualizações.

Quénia

Kenya is a migration source, destination, and transit country for neighbouring countries, as well as for South Africa, the Middle East, North Africa, North America, and Europe. Additionally, Kenya is home to one of the largest refugee populations and has some of the oldest refugee camps in Africa.

Tunísia

Tunisia has always been a country of emigration. In the years following the end of the French Protectorate in 1956, Tunisians mostly emigrated to Western Europe owing to labour shortages in the region, especially in France.

Etiópia

Ethiopia is the oldest independent country on the African continent. Except for a brief period under Mussolini’s Italy, the country has always maintained its independence. Ethiopia is a landlocked country largely dependent on its neighbour Djibouti for port access. It is a majority Christian country and is home to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

Níger

Niger is positioned at the crossroads of the migratory routes of West and Central Africa.

Thus, Niger has become one of the main transit countries for migrants originating from West and Central Africa, moving to North Africa, and migrating irregularly across the Mediterranean.

Filipinas

The Republic of the Philippines, an archipelago in Southeast Asia, is the world's fifth-largest island nation and one of the most populated countries in the world: 109,180,815 (2020).

Bahrein

Despite the workforce nationalization policy established in recent years in Bahrain, its economy is still mainly relying on foreign workforce.

Marrocos

Morocco has been a country of emigration since the 1960s, with a reported 2.8 million Moroccans having moved abroad (2014). Initially, it was mostly low-skilled workers who migrated to France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, but then a shift occurred as high skilled workers began moving to the United States and Canada.

Nigéria

Migration has always been a significant part of Nigerian history. All the major ethnic groups in Nigeria believe that their current settlement resulted from their ancestors’ prior migration.

Mali

Migration in Mali is deep-rooted. The geographical position of the country has historically placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between the Maghreb to the north and sub-Saharan African countries to the south. Mobility was essential for trade in products (salt, livestock, and gold) and slaves.

Gana

Following the independence of Ghana in 1957, the number of people migrating to Ghana far surpassed the number who left. However, by the 1980s, Ghana had become a country of emigration, which it still is today.

Qatar

The State of Qatar is ruled by a hereditary absolute monarchy. Qatar has signed several memoranda of understanding and agreements with workforce-sending countries, in particular with South and Southeast Asian nations to facilitate the recruitment of migrants.

Irão

Situated at the junction of the Middle East and Asia, Iran, also known as Persia, is an ancient civilisation, amongst the oldest sovereign States in the world. A predominantly Persian yet multi-ethnic society, the political nature of the State in Iran is Shiite and theocratic.

Myanmar (emergência)

With over 366,000 internally displaced people, and 10,000 refugees fleeing Myanmar in just three months since February 2021 due to the violence and deteriorating situation in the country, neighbouring countries in the region are witnessing increasing arrivals from Myanmar seeking international protection.

Ilhas do mar Egeu, Grécia

Some 13,100 refugees and asylum seekers reside on the Aegean islands. Of those, 10,100 (77%) reside in the permanent and temporary Reception and

Identification Centers (RICs).

Ilhas Canárias, Espanha

Escalating conflicts and displacement in the Sahel have forced an estimated 2.9 million people to flee. Facing protracted displacement, dire conditions in neighbouring host countries where they sought shelter, the continued economic impact of the COVID pandemic and a lack of viable alternatives, many continue to attempt risky sea journeys to Europe through the Canary islands.

Rota do Mediterrâneo

Refugees and migrants suffer brutality and abuses along the routes towards the Mediterranean. Many fall prey to traffickers and smugglers and are extorted, raped, and sometimes killed or left to die. Many of them flee violence and persecution and have dire and urgent protection needs.

Camarões anglófono

The main humanitarian needs of Cameroonian refugees and IDPs are related to protection, food and water, sanitation and hygiene. However, the education sector has been particularly affected, with 80% of children being deprived of their schooling.

Nigéria (Boko Haram)

The crisis in northeast Nigeria is caused by an internal armed conflict, with the islamic terrorist group Boko Haram operating in the region since 2014.

República Checa

Until the end of the past millennium, Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, was pre-eminently an emigration country due to communist oppression, especially following the 1968 invasion by the armies of the Warsaw Pact.

Koweit

Despite its strong workforce, nationalization policies, and the increasing struggle against integration of migrants in Kuwait (which has been underway in recent years), the country’s economy continues to rely heavily on its foreign workforce.

Rota balcânica

The Western Balkan Route is one of the main migratory pathways into Europe. Since mid-2018, transit corridors from Bulgaria, North Macedonia and Serbia, as well as through Albania and Montenegro, via Bosnia and Herzegovina became one of the most travelled mixed migration routes in the Western Balkans, with approximately 70,000 people arrived in Bosnia and Herzegovina since early 2018.

Tigray, Ethiopia

Since the violence began in early-November 2020, thousands of refugees have been fleeing ongoing fighting in Ethiopia’s Tigray region at a rate of 3,000 people per day to seek safety in eastern Sudan.

Tajiquistão

The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the heart of Central Asia and is bordered by Kyrgyzstan to the north, by China to the east, by Afghanistan to the south and by Uzbekistan to the west and north-west. Its land area covers 143,100 km2 and is divided into four provinces, one of which is autonomous.

Portugal

In the mid-1970s, Portugal began receiving high inflows of migrants from the Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa, notably Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe and Mozambique.

Burquina Faso

Migration in Burkina Faso has long been a traditional way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by years spent abroad.

Espanha

Spain is currently one of the primary destination countries for international migration. The largest groups are from Morocco, China, Ecuador, Colombia and usually arrive by air and sea. Many arrivals are people of working age who take job in primary industries and the service sector.

Terra Santa

The Holy Land is the location of a more than seven-decade-long situation which has witnessed numerous armed confrontations and political, economic and social pressures that lead to land occupation, exodus, human rights violations and continued instability throughout the region.

Panamá

Despite being small in area and population, Panama is a country with considerable migration issues, although data on migration is scanty compared to other countries in the region.

Uzbequistão

Uzbekistan is a country in Central Asia, a former member of the Soviet Union from which it gained independence in 1991. The country is landlocked, bordering Kazakhstan to the North and West, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the East, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the South.

Turcomenistão

Turkmenistan is a presidential republic located in Central Asia with a population of 5,942,089 inhabitants (2019). The country is divided into five provinces (Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap, Mary) and an autonomous city district (the capital Ashgabat).

Grécia

During the last decades of 1800 until the first part of the twentieth century, Greece was a migrant-sending country. Many Greeks expatriated to find better economic conditions.

Malta

Malta is an island situated in the Mediterranean Sea, halfway between the coasts of Tunisia and Sicily.
It is the tenth smallest country in the world and the fourth most densely populated. Until
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Malta was an important source of emigration.

Jordânia

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a small country at the crossroads of the Holy Land which Pope Francis complimented in 2014 for its “generous welcome” of refugees fleeing crises in the Middle East.

Turquia

The Republic of Turkey was created in 1923 and is located in the Eastern Mediterranean basin, on both sides of the Bosphorus, therefore forming a junction between Europe and Asia. As a result, flows of migrants have been taking this road illegally in hope to reach Europe over the past decades.

Croácia

Croatia is a parliamentary republic. Geographically, it borders Slovenia to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to the south, and the Adriatic Sea to the west. The territorial land area is 56,590 km2, while the territorial water area is 31,067 km2.

Rússia

The Russian Federation is a transcontinental state that stretches from Europe across Asia. It is the largest state in the world with an area of 17,098,242 km.2 According to 2019 data from ROSSTAT (Federal Statistical Service), Russia had 146,792,744 inhabitants, ranking it ninth in the world for the number of its inhabitants and tenth according to its mortality rate.

Iémen

Located at the Southern end of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen has been suffering from a deadly civil war that escalated into a regional proxy war between the Saudi led coalition and Iran, a situation that has been coined the world’s worst humanitarian crisis by the United Nations.

Ucrânia

Ukraine (603,600 sq. km) is a country with a long history and tradition located in Eastern Europe, divided into 24 Provinces and the capital Kyiv, which has special status. It is a middle-income country, with a significant output in agriculture and food products, as well as a strong industrial base.

Tailândia

The Kingdom of Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country which has never been colonized by a European power. The head of state is King Wachiralongkon while the head of Government is Prime Minister Gen. Prayut Chan-ocha.

Myanmar

Myanmar or Burma is the most multilingual and ethnically and religiously diverse country in South-East Asia. The population of 54,409,800 inhabitants (July 2020, est.) of this lower middle-income least developed country is composed of 135 ethnicities, while its five main religions are: Theravada Buddhism 89.2%, Christianity 5.0%, Islam 3.5%, Hinduism 0.5%, and Spiritualism 1.2%.

Iraque

Iraq has experienced long periods of war throughout its short existence, and especially during the past few decades.

Indonésia

The Republic of Indonesia is now the world's fourth most populous democracy, with an estimated 262,787,403 people (July 2018), and the largest Muslim-majority nation. At 87.2%, Islam is the dominant religion while 7% are Protestant and 3.33% are Roman Catholic.

Hungria

The Republic of Hungary, a parliamentary republic, is a member of the European Union, NATO, OSCE and the Visegrád Group (V4), and has been a member of the Schengen Agreement since 2004. It has an area of 93,030 km2 and has a continental climate.

Chipre

Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean to the south of the Anatolian peninsula. It is divided de facto into two parts: the Greek Orthodox-majority Republic of Cyprus (59% of the territory), and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (36%), with a Muslim population; there is a buffer zone between the two.

Bósnia e Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, formerly part of Yugoslavia (until 1992), is now a federal parliamentary republic in the Western Balkans, with a capital in Sarajevo and a population of 3.32 million (with a growth rate of -0.17%) in 2018.

Bélgica

Belgium is a federal state, governed by a parliamentary monarchy. It is a member and one of the founding states of the European Union; Brussels, its capital city, hosts the headquarters of several Community institutions.

Áustria

Austria is a federal parliamentary republic located in central Europe that entered the European Union in 1995. With a per capita GDP of USD 53,481.76 (of which 71% is the tertiary sector) and an HDI of 0.908, it ranks as one of the richest European countries.

Albânia

Albania is a parliamentary republic located on the Balkan Peninsula. The country has been an official candidate for accession to the European Union since 2014 with negotiations initiated in March 2020.

Líbano

Situated between the Holy Land and Syria, Lebanon is riddled with deeply rooted political instability, and highly impacted by the devastating fiscal, economic, monetary, and sanitary crises.

Síria

Syria has been experiencing a state of war involving a multitude of internal and external factors since 2011.

Georgia

Georgia (69,700 sq km) is located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia and has a population of 3,716,900 (2020) that is mainly urbanized, with 58% of that population residing in the capital, Tbilisi. The major ethnic groups include: Georgian (86.6%), Azeri (6.3%), Armenian (4.5%), Russian and Yezidi (2.3%).