Perfis de País

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World Map

As respostas da Igreja aos desafios colocados pelo fenómeno das migrações são elaboradas com base nas situações particulares geradas pelos diferentes fluxos.

A Secção Migrantes e Refugiados pediu a alguns peritos que elaborassem perfis migratórios para cada país do mundo, a fim de oferecer um instrumento de consulta científico e objetivo às Igrejas locais e outros atores católicos envolvidos no cuidado pastoral da mobilidade humana. Para cada país, são comunicados dados e informações sobre as migrações internacionais e internas, o quadro jurídico nacional e os principais atores envolvidos no sector.

Como este é um trabalho longo e dispendioso, nem todos os dados estão atualmente disponíveis. Recomendamos que visite esta página frequentemente para verificar se há atualizações.


Though located in a region that is affected by conflict and violence, Senegal remains one of the most stable countries in Africa, having gone through three peaceful political transitions since obtaining its independence from France.


Burundi is densely populated, even though it is the least urbanized country in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a 13.7% urban population. Despite its stretched resources, Burundi is a host to about 80,000 refugees mostly from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

A Rota do Mediterrâneo Oriental (emergência)

Since 2014, the Eastern Mediterranean migration route has served as an important pathway for refugees, asylum seekers, and migrants crossing to Europe from the Middle East, Asia, and Africa.


Historically, Venezuela has always been considered the most prosperous South American country, due to an outstanding oil production; but in 2008 a major inflation crisis hit the national economy, causing an on-going political and financial instability. As a consequence, from February 2017 to October 2021 Venezuelan refugees have increased exponentially.


Chad is situated at the confluence of concurrent and overlapping conflicts in the Sahel, the Lake Chad Basin, Western Darfur, and the Central African Republic. Despite its dire economic situation, Chad remains one of the countries in the region that receives thousands of migrants because of its central position. 


Stretching into the Mediterranean sea, as a bridge between Europe and Africa, Italy has always been a land of migration, due to its peculiar geographical position. In the last decades, it experienced strong immigration and emigration flows, resulting in more than 6 million foreigners living in the country and about 5.5 million Italians living abroad.


Canada, the world’s second largest country in total area, has a long history of migration and has been characterized as a land of immigration. In the last twenty years, Canada has experienced a significant increase in migratory flows and, in 2018, became the country with the highest number of resettled refugees.


Cameroon is commonly referred to as “Africa in miniature” due to its cultural diversity and abundant natural resources (wood, cotton, refined petroleum oils, unwrought aluminium, etc.). Cameroon also has an extremely heterogeneous population, with a total of approximately 240 tribes.

Moçambique (emergência)

The combined effects of natural disasters, conflicts and the COVID-19 pandemic left many people in Mozambique in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. As of October 31, 2021, Mozambique hosts 28,788 refugees and asylum seekers as well as more than 860,000 IDPs.

Haiti (emergência)

Since mid-2018, economic and political crisis has worsened in Haiti, and violence and insecurity have become widespread after the Haiti president's assassination on July 7, 2021.

África do Sul

South Africa is Africa’s southernmost country. In 2020, it was the top destination country for immigrants in Southern Africa, with a migrant population of 2,137,519 (28%). Migration routes in and out of South Africa are some of the most widely travelled on the continent.

Costa do Marfim

Since its independence in 1960, Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) has been hailed as the top migration destination country in West Africa - especially among labour migrants and refugees. With the tensions in the country from 2002 until 2020, immigration has declined. However, Ivory Coast remains among the top ten migration corridors in Western Africa, and is host to the highest number of migrants (2,564,857) in the region.


Uganda is a landlocked country bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Tanzania. The country’s population in 2020 was 45.7 million. Migration to Uganda has been driven by political factors, poverty, rapid population growth, and the porosity of international borders.


Eritrea is an east African country with a population that is growing annually and may reach 6.7 million by 2030.Migrants constitute 12% of the total population (607,900 people), while refugees represent 9.6% (486,200). The long-lasting tension between Eritrea and Ethiopia has led to the militarisation of the nation.


For several decades Afghanistan has been considered the world’s highest refugee-producing country due to an unstable political and social climate. This current situation may have worsened because of the fall of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, the full withdrawal of international troops from the country and the reinstatement of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

Coreia do Sul

As its population is rapidly aging, South Korea attracts thousands of foreign, low-skilled workers, especially from the Great Mekong area. As of the middle of 2020, 1.7 million foreigners were living in the Republic of Korea.


Cambodia lies in the middle of the Great Mekong sub-region, in Indochina. Though urbanization is on the rise, migrants – both internal and international – face many burdens and adversities. They are increasingly vulnerable to trafficking, abuse, and exploitation. The families they leave behind also suffer significant hardships. Internal migration is prevalent, especially from the countryside to the urban areas, and so is emigration.


Located in Central Europe and bordering the Baltic Sea, Poland has a population of 38,000,000 and one of the largest diasporas in the world. Polish nationals and the descendants of former Polish migrants amount to around 20 million people worldwide, mostly located in Western countries.


Due to its impressive growth in wealth, the associated drop in birth rates, and its highly skilled population, many of whom study and work abroad, Taiwan experienced an urgent need for blue-collar workers. It therefore invited thousands of migrant workers from both mainland China and Southeast Asian countries. As of May 2021, more than 820,000 foreigners were living in the country, representing about 3.5% of its entire population of 23,000,000. Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Thailand are the main countries of origin of immigrants in Taiwan, the majority of whom are female.


A post-industrial society, Japan is an insular country with one of the highest Human Development Index ratings in the world. Though a popular high end tourism destination, Japan is also a rather homogeneous society with very strict immigration policies. Japan has the lowest asylum intake ratio in the developed world.
As the country is particularly prone to natural and consequent industrial disasters, large internal displacements can occur, as in the wake of the 2011 earthquake. While the effects of these events are temporary for most people, these disasters leave the most destitute in a highly vulnerable position, particularly asylum seekers as well as Japanese nationals who live in poverty. Human trafficking also takes place in Japan, likewise targeting the most vulnerable.


The Socialist Republic of Vietnam was founded in 1976, three years after the withdrawal of U.S. forces and the subsequent takeover of South Vietnam by North Vietnamese Communist forces. A century of conflicts and political persecutions produced a sizeable diaspora of refugees and economic migrants, especially in Australia and the United States. This created a vast community of Vietnamese living abroad, beckoning new emigrant flows. About 100,000 Vietnamese leave the country every year to work and study abroad.


Located in the south-eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula, the Sultanate of Oman has a population of approximately four and a half million people. Amongst its inhabitants is a rapidly decreasing proportion of foreign workers, presently around 30% of the population, who are being displaced by the nationalisation of the workforce.


France is a State governed by a semi-presidential Republic. It is a founding member of the European Union. The French population was composed of roughly 9.9% migrants in 2019, of which approximately one half came from African countries and one third came from other Member States of the European Union.

Emirados Árabes Unidos

Second-highest migrant destination country in the Middle East and the Gulf, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven Emirates and is one of the most globally integrated countries in the Arab Peninsula.


Armenia is a landlocked country in the Caucasus region, known for its large diaspora all around the world. Armenia became independent in the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, three years after the dramatic earthquake of 1988.

Afeganistão (emergência)

Suffering protracted conflict and insecurity as well as disasters such as droughts, floods and storms, Afghanistan faces one of the world’s most severe internal displacement crises. The needs remain enormous with half of the Afghan population requiring humanitarian assistance.

Sudão do Sul

The Republic of South Sudan is the youngest nation in the world; it gained independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011 following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 and the referendum and independence process in 2011. Its history is, therefore, connected to that of Sudan.


The Republic of the Sudan is a country of origin, transit, and destination, geographically positioned along the main migratory routes from West and East Africa to Europe. Sudan is a place of origin for migration due to on-going conflicts and related insecurities, as well as a stagnated economic situation marked by widespread unemployment.


In the 1990s, Algeria experienced substantial emigration due to civil war. Many Algerians entered Tunisia irregularly and others sought asylum in Europe. After the civil war, sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations and consequently increased their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers (principally from China and Egypt) came to work in Algeria's construction and oil sectors.


Kazakhstan is a large Central Asian country situated between Asia and Europe. It is a former Soviet state and a current member of the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Following its independence in 1991, it made great strides towards economic recovery.

Arábia Saudita

Despite the strong workforce nationalization policies and the increasing struggle against the integration of migrants in Saudi Arabia in recent years, the country’s economy still mainly relies on a foreign workforce. In 2020, migrants comprised roughly 38.4% of the population of Saudi Arabia.


Libya has experienced a period of intense and protracted crisis since 2011. Before this explosion of violence, the country was a major destination for labour migrants and typically hosted from 1.35 to 2.5 million migrant workers. Most migrant labourers worked in the construction and health sectors, with some in agricultural and manufacturing sectors.


Somalia is a country of transit, destination, origin, and return for massive flows of internal and outward migration across the Horn of Africa and beyond. A civil war between 1987 and 1991 promoted the mass internal displacement of approximately 100,000 refugees, and of more than 500,000 towards Ethiopia.

República Democrática do Congo

The population in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has been rising over the past several decades, but the migrant population portion has fluctuated. For example, in 2010 the migrant population was 589,000, and not even a decade later, in 2019, the migrant population was 963,800.


Zambia experiences substantial internal migration and emigration exceeds immigration. The international migrant stock for Zambia is 170,200. Zambia hosts a relatively small number of asylum seekers and refugees compared to other similarly situated African countries.


Kyrgyzstan has a young population, with over 50% being under the age of 30. In addition to Kyrgyz, who make up roughly 75% of the population, the country is populated by various ethnic groups including Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, Tatars, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Koreans, Uighurs, and Germans who were exiled from the Soviet Union in 1941.


Kenya is a migration source, destination, and transit country for neighbouring countries, as well as for South Africa, the Middle East, North Africa, North America, and Europe. Additionally, Kenya is home to one of the largest refugee populations and has some of the oldest refugee camps in Africa.


Tunisia has always been a country of emigration. In the years following the end of the French Protectorate in 1956, Tunisians mostly emigrated to Western Europe owing to labour shortages in the region, especially in France.


Ethiopia is the oldest independent country on the African continent. Except for a brief period under Mussolini’s Italy, the country has always maintained its independence. Ethiopia is a landlocked country largely dependent on its neighbour Djibouti for port access. It is a majority Christian country and is home to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.


Niger is positioned at the crossroads of the migratory routes of West and Central Africa.

Thus, Niger has become one of the main transit countries for migrants originating from West and Central Africa, moving to North Africa, and migrating irregularly across the Mediterranean.


The Republic of the Philippines, an archipelago in Southeast Asia, is the world's fifth-largest island nation and one of the most populated countries in the world: 109,180,815 (2020).


Despite the workforce nationalization policy established in recent years in Bahrain, its economy is still mainly relying on foreign workforce.


Morocco has been a country of emigration since the 1960s, with a reported 2.8 million Moroccans having moved abroad (2014). Initially, it was mostly low-skilled workers who migrated to France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, but then a shift occurred as high skilled workers began moving to the United States and Canada.


Migration has always been a significant part of Nigerian history. All the major ethnic groups in Nigeria believe that their current settlement resulted from their ancestors’ prior migration.


Migration in Mali is deep-rooted. The geographical position of the country has historically placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between the Maghreb to the north and sub-Saharan African countries to the south. Mobility was essential for trade in products (salt, livestock, and gold) and slaves.


Following the independence of Ghana in 1957, the number of people migrating to Ghana far surpassed the number who left. However, by the 1980s, Ghana had become a country of emigration, which it still is today.


The State of Qatar is ruled by a hereditary absolute monarchy. Qatar has signed several memoranda of understanding and agreements with workforce-sending countries, in particular with South and Southeast Asian nations to facilitate the recruitment of migrants.


Situated at the junction of the Middle East and Asia, Iran, also known as Persia, is an ancient civilisation, amongst the oldest sovereign States in the world. A predominantly Persian yet multi-ethnic society, the political nature of the State in Iran is Shiite and theocratic.

Myanmar (emergência)

Since the start of armed conflicts and violence in February 2021, more than 223,000 people have been displaced in Myanmar and 22,000 refugees have fled to neighbouring countries. With 23,500 people displaced in October alone, the situation continues to deteriorate. In November, Myanmar recorded a total of about 589,000 internally displaced persons.

Ilhas do mar Egeu, Grécia (emergência)

 A total of 7,879 asylum seekers arrived in Greece via Turkey in 2021. Of these, 3,568 arrived by sea and 4,311 by land. The majority arrived in the region of Evros and on the island of Lesbos.

Ilhas Canárias, Espanha (emergência)

Escalating conflicts and displacement in the Sahel have forced an estimated 2.9 million people to flee. Facing protracted displacement, dire conditions in neighbouring host countries where they sought shelter, the continued economic impact of the COVID pandemic and a lack of viable alternatives, many continue to attempt risky sea journeys to Europe through the Canary islands.

Rota do Mediterrâneo (emergência)

Refugees and migrants suffer brutality and abuses along the routes towards the Mediterranean. Many fall prey to traffickers and smugglers and are extorted, raped, and sometimes killed or left to die. Many of them flee violence and persecution and have dire and urgent protection needs.

Camarões anglófono (emergência)

The main humanitarian needs of Cameroonian refugees and IDPs are related to protection, food and water, sanitation and hygiene. Insecurity and roadblocks in the North-West and the South-West regions have been obstructing humanitarian access, preventing the delivery of aid to affected people.

Nigéria (Boko Haram), emergência

The living conditions of IDPs are dreadful, characterised by irregular and inadequate distribution of food, crude shelters, and poor health and sanitation services. Despite the return of Nigerian IDPs and refugees to accessible areas, the crisis remains critical.

República Checa

Until the end of the past millennium, Czech Republic, also known as Czechia, was pre-eminently an emigration country due to communist oppression, especially following the 1968 invasion by the armies of the Warsaw Pact.


Despite its strong workforce, nationalization policies, and the increasing struggle against integration of migrants in Kuwait (which has been underway in recent years), the country’s economy continues to rely heavily on its foreign workforce.

Rota balcânica (emergência)

The Western Balkan Route is one of the main migratory pathways into Europe. Migrants and refugees stuck along the Balkan Route are in desperate need of adequate shelter, warm clothes, nutritious food and medical assistance.

Tigray, Ethiopia (emergência)

Since the violence began in early-November 2020, an estimated 2.1 million people have been displaced due to the ongoing fighting in Ethiopia’s Tigray region. 


The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the heart of Central Asia and is bordered by Kyrgyzstan to the north, by China to the east, by Afghanistan to the south and by Uzbekistan to the west and north-west. Its land area covers 143,100 km2 and is divided into four provinces, one of which is autonomous.


In the mid-1970s, Portugal began receiving high inflows of migrants from the Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa, notably Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe and Mozambique.

Burquina Faso

Migration in Burkina Faso has long been a traditional way of life for Burkinabe, with seasonal migration being replaced by years spent abroad.


Spain is currently one of the primary destination countries for international migration. The largest groups are from Morocco, China, Ecuador, Colombia and usually arrive by air and sea. Many arrivals are people of working age who take job in primary industries and the service sector.

Terra Santa

The Holy Land is the location of a more than seven-decade-long situation which has witnessed numerous armed confrontations and political, economic and social pressures that lead to land occupation, exodus, human rights violations and continued instability throughout the region.


Despite being small in area and population, Panama is a country with considerable migration issues, although data on migration is scanty compared to other countries in the region.


Uzbekistan is a country in Central Asia, a former member of the Soviet Union from which it gained independence in 1991. The country is landlocked, bordering Kazakhstan to the North and West, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the East, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the South.


Turkmenistan is a presidential republic located in Central Asia with a population of 5,942,089 inhabitants (2019). The country is divided into five provinces (Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap, Mary) and an autonomous city district (the capital Ashgabat).


During the last decades of 1800 until the first part of the twentieth century, Greece was a migrant-sending country. Many Greeks expatriated to find better economic conditions.


Malta is an island situated in the Mediterranean Sea, halfway between the coasts of Tunisia and Sicily.
It is the tenth smallest country in the world and the fourth most densely populated. Until
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Malta was an important source of emigration.


The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a small country at the crossroads of the Holy Land which Pope Francis complimented in 2014 for its “generous welcome” of refugees fleeing crises in the Middle East.


The Republic of Turkey was created in 1923 and is located in the Eastern Mediterranean basin, on both sides of the Bosphorus, therefore forming a junction between Europe and Asia. As a result, flows of migrants have been taking this road illegally in hope to reach Europe over the past decades.


Croatia is a parliamentary republic. Geographically, it borders Slovenia to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to the south, and the Adriatic Sea to the west. The territorial land area is 56,590 km2, while the territorial water area is 31,067 km2.


The Russian Federation is a transcontinental state that stretches from Europe across Asia. It is the largest state in the world with an area of 17,098,242 km.2 According to 2019 data from ROSSTAT (Federal Statistical Service), Russia had 146,792,744 inhabitants, ranking it ninth in the world for the number of its inhabitants and tenth according to its mortality rate.


Located at the Southern end of the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen has been suffering from a deadly civil war that escalated into a regional proxy war between the Saudi led coalition and Iran, a situation that has been coined the world’s worst humanitarian crisis by the United Nations.


Ukraine (603,600 sq. km) is a country with a long history and tradition located in Eastern Europe, divided into 24 Provinces and the capital Kyiv, which has special status. It is a middle-income country, with a significant output in agriculture and food products, as well as a strong industrial base.


The Kingdom of Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country which has never been colonized by a European power. The head of state is King Wachiralongkon while the head of Government is Prime Minister Gen. Prayut Chan-ocha.


Myanmar or Burma is the most multilingual and ethnically and religiously diverse country in South-East Asia. The population of 54,409,800 inhabitants (July 2020, est.) of this lower middle-income least developed country is composed of 135 ethnicities, while its five main religions are: Theravada Buddhism 89.2%, Christianity 5.0%, Islam 3.5%, Hinduism 0.5%, and Spiritualism 1.2%.


Iraq has experienced long periods of war throughout its short existence, and especially during the past few decades.


The Republic of Indonesia is now the world's fourth most populous democracy, with an estimated 262,787,403 people (July 2018), and the largest Muslim-majority nation. At 87.2%, Islam is the dominant religion while 7% are Protestant and 3.33% are Roman Catholic.


The Republic of Hungary, a parliamentary republic, is a member of the European Union, NATO, OSCE and the Visegrád Group (V4), and has been a member of the Schengen Agreement since 2004. It has an area of 93,030 km2 and has a continental climate.


Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean to the south of the Anatolian peninsula. It is divided de facto into two parts: the Greek Orthodox-majority Republic of Cyprus (59% of the territory), and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (36%), with a Muslim population; there is a buffer zone between the two.

Bósnia e Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, formerly part of Yugoslavia (until 1992), is now a federal parliamentary republic in the Western Balkans, with a capital in Sarajevo and a population of 3.32 million (with a growth rate of -0.17%) in 2018.


Belgium is a federal state, governed by a parliamentary monarchy. It is a member and one of the founding states of the European Union; Brussels, its capital city, hosts the headquarters of several Community institutions.


Austria is a federal parliamentary republic located in central Europe that entered the European Union in 1995. With a per capita GDP of USD 53,481.76 (of which 71% is the tertiary sector) and an HDI of 0.908, it ranks as one of the richest European countries.


Albania is a parliamentary republic located on the Balkan Peninsula. The country has been an official candidate for accession to the European Union since 2014 with negotiations initiated in March 2020.


Situated between the Holy Land and Syria, Lebanon is riddled with deeply rooted political instability, and highly impacted by the devastating fiscal, economic, monetary, and sanitary crises.


Syria has been experiencing a state of war involving a multitude of internal and external factors since 2011.


Georgia (69,700 sq km) is located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia and has a population of 3,716,900 (2020) that is mainly urbanized, with 58% of that population residing in the capital, Tbilisi. The major ethnic groups include: Georgian (86.6%), Azeri (6.3%), Armenian (4.5%), Russian and Yezidi (2.3%).